Exclusive breastfeeding is best for michigan babies and children breastfeeding decreases an infants risk of dying, and this decreased risk is seen. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and infant infection. The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding report of the expert consultation, geneva, switzerland, 2830 march 2001. Aug 22, 2018 adequate knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding is said to be the fundamental tool that can direct the course of ebf practice among mothers 2, 3.
Six months of exclusive breastfeeding recommendation bioline. This intersection of outcomes salient for the business community and public health. This randomized clinical trial assigns mothernewborn dyads to exclusive breastfeeding or breastfeeding supplemented with small amounts formula in the first week of life to evaluate the effect of formula supplementation on duration of breastfeeding at 6 and 12 months. To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Exclusive breastfeeding after the hospital stay was defined as receiving only breastmilk after hospital discharge, and does not consider inhospital feeding. The contents of this document do not n ecessarily reflect the views or policies of usaid. Distribution of household occupation and mothers education according to the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. After the first 6 months and until the infant is 1 year old, the aap recommends that the mother continue breastfeeding while gradually introducing solid foods into the infants diet. Knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding among. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Breastfeeding practices and determinants of exclusive. Skilled counseling in enhancing early and exclusive breastfeeding rates. However, there is little research assessing the role of regret and selfconscious emotions e.
Tool kit for monitoring and evaluating breastfeeding. The optimal duration of exclusive who world health. The effect of breastfeeding selfefficacy on breastfeeding. Anamnestic data on breastfeeding and sociodemographic information were collected from. Antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration breastfeeding is well recognised as the best food for infants and the world health organization recommends that all infants should have exclusive breastfeeding for at least six months after birth.
However, the world health organization has called for more research regarding the bene. Impact of a feeding log on breastfeeding duration and. The exclusive breastfeeding rate and early initiation to breastfeeding are still very low, because there are many factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding such as, lack of knowledge. Factors associated to the duration of exclusive breastfeeding.
Mothers may need appropriate support for increasing their milk supply depending on the switch and the duration of the gap. The role of socialcognitive and emotional factors on. Exclusive breastfeeding for optimal growth, development and health of infants. The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding since 1979, the who recommendation for the duration of exclusive breastfeeding has been 46 months. Mothers who report switching away from exclusive breastfeeding early are more likely to continue ebf during the. Exclusive breastfeeding means that the infant does not receive any additional foods except vitamin d or fluids unless medically recommended. Jul 24, 2019 the effects of the bsp without controlling for differences between groups. Mothers expectations and factors influencing exclusive. The theory of planned behavior was used as a theoretical framework for this study. Exclusive breastfeeding from birth is possible except for a few medical conditions, and unrestricted exclusive breastfeeding results in ample milk production. Literature available provides information on the factors associated to the duration of exclusive breastfeeding, although the methodological heterogeneity of the studies did not. The median estimated duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 60 days. Infants who are properly breastfed grow better and experience less sickness and fewer deaths than other infants who are not breastfed john, 2005.
The effect of a breastfeeding support programme on breastfeeding. Prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding has also been associated with a reduced risk of the sudden infant death syndrome sids 18 1921and of atopic disease, and some studies even suggest acceleration of neurocognitive development2228 and protection against longterm. This study aimed to assess the association of exclusive breastfeeding duration with risk of anemia in infants at 12 mo of age and in children aged 4871 mo in mainland china. We analysed the data on 15 809 term, singleton infants from the uk millennium cohort study. Web site addresses of nonfederal organizations are provided solely as a service to readers. It offers the most relevant information on each type of strategy. We estimated the risk of infection associated with the duration of exclusive breastfeeding ebf. Nutrient adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding for the term infant during the first six months of life nancy f. The effect of breastfeeding selfefficacy on breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity, and duration by adria vincent project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of doctor of nursing practice walden university november 2015. While breastfeeding beyond 6 months, a baby should receive foods with breast milk until the age of 2 or older. Exclusive breastfeeding duration 2004 health canada. Infants with a family history of diabetes, who have been breastfed exclu. Initiation of breastfeeding immediately after birth, exclusive breastfeeding, and continuous breastfeeding for at least 2 years lower the risk of newborn deaths. Despite the extensive available information on the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding both for the mother and the infant, in kenya only % of children below six months are exclusively breastfed unicef, 2006.
The duration of exclusive breastfeeding has varied from 65% at birth to duration of exclusive breastfeeding remains relatively low in the united states. Globally, just 38% of infants less than 6 months are exclusively breastfed. Associations between perceived value of exclusive breastfeeding. Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding cochrane. A twostage cluster sample was drawn from the population of children aged 1824 months living in the area in 2012.
Supporting breastfeeding during the hospital stay is ideal for a number of reasons. Nowadays, the who recommends an exclusive breastfeeding period for the first six months of life, with the introduction of solid foods thereafter and continued breastfeeding until age two or more. Yet, indicated that most mothers have knowledge of ebf 97. Jul 27, 2016 we estimated the risk of infection associated with the duration of exclusive breastfeeding ebf. Exclusive breastfeeding knowledge knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding lack of understanding or misunderstandings about the meaning of exclusive breastfeeding and its duration health care worker counseling receiving accurate breastfeeding counseling, education, or advice from health care workers. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and infant infection european. Biophysical factors that influence the initiation and duration of breastfeeding include intrapartum experiences,9, 10 early breastfeeding practices10, 16, 17 and perceived milk supply. Provision of an address does not constitute an endorsement of this organization by cdc or the federal. Breastfeeding protects against diarrhoea and common childhood illnesses such as pneumonia. Exclusive breastfeeding ebf in the first six months of the life can significantly improve maternal and children health, and it is especially important in low and middleincome countries. A quasiexperimental design was used to compare breastfeeding duration and exclusivity in the bsp group n66 to breastfeeding duration and exclusivity in a control group n72. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and later intake of.
Prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding reduces the risk of. From 1breastfeeding promotion network of india, delhi, and 2department of pediatrics, jawaharlal nehru medical college, amu, aligarh, uttar pradesh. The cdc guide to strategies to support breastfeeding mothers. The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding, in, geneva, world health organization, 2001. Developmental readiness of normal full term infants to. Having realtime access to clinical staff in the hospital is an. Our findings support healthpolicy strategies to promote exclusive breastfeeding for at least 4 months, but preferably 6 months, in industrialized countries. Exclusive breastfeeding in hospital predicts longer. Breastfeeding trends and updated national health objectives for exclusive breastfeeding united states birth years 20002004. Breastfeeding duration and exclusivity decrease infant. Effect of early limited formula on breastfeeding duration. This study was conducted to examine the trends and factors associated with early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding and duration of breastfeeding in ethiopia. The breastfeeding duration after 2 years depends entirely on the mother and the baby.
Pdf before 2001, the world health organization who recommended that infants be exclusively breastfed for 46 mo with the introduction of. Breast milk contains all the nutrients an infant needs in the first six months of life. Pdf exclusive breastfeeding duration and infant infection. Duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding in oklahoma. To examine whether a relationship exists between exclusive breastfeeding duration and later vegetable consumption in 4yearold children, independently of factors traditionally associated with. The strategies described in this guide focus on policy and environmental. Exclusive breastfeeding seems to decrease the risk of infectious diseases in infancy.
Breastfeeding duration there are also a variety of factors that influence breastfeeding duration and often lead to early cessation, such as returning to work or school partyka et al. Exclusive breastfeeding is reportedly low in many countries 3,4,5,6,7. These data show the current state of breastfeeding in michigan, and will serve as ongoing sources of data to tr ack michigan s progress and the success of. Impact of key workplace breastfeeding support characteristics. For example, more research examining the effect of longer exclusive and total breastfeeding duration on longterm postpartum weight retention is recommended. Neither the trials nor the observational studies suggest that infants who continue to be exclusively breastfed for 6 months show deficits in weight or length gain. Organizational and managerial support are key aspects of workplace lactation support, which may positively impact job satisfaction, rates of exclusive breastfeeding, and duration of exclusive breastfeeding among female health care employees. These data show the current state of breastfeeding in michigan. The trend of exclusive breastfeeding among infants less than 6 months in developing countries has taken over. The purpose of the project was to identify the barriers to exclusive breastfeeding among mothers during the first 4. Racial and geographic differences in breastfeeding united. The association between exclusive breastfeeding duration and infant anemia is not clear.
A longitudinal study of the effect of psychosocial factors on. Breastfeeding has important positive longterm health consequences for. The cdc guide to strategies to support breastfeeding. Prolonged exclusive breastfeeding duration is positively. Exclusive breastfeeding until the age of 4 months and partially thereafter was associated with a significant reduction of respiratory and gastrointestinal morbidity in infants. Introduction breast milk is critical for sustaining newborn infant health and wellbeing. Prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding reduces the risk of infectious diseases in infancy whats known on this subject. Exclusive breastfeeding may reduce the risk of anemia by delaying the return of the menstrual cycle for 20 to 30 weeks. The effect of a breastfeeding support programme on. Literature available provides information on the factors associated to the duration of exclusive breastfeeding, although the.
Nutrient adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding for the term infant during the first six months of life. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk american academy. Mothers of study children completed questionnaires at age 6 and 12 months regarding duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding and whether any infectious diseases occurred. Goldman, md introduction the optimal length of exclusive breastfeeding by fullterm infants has been estimated from clinical outcomes such as growth, development, and susceptibility to infectious diseases. Breastfeeding is a natural process of infant feeding.
Barriers to exclusive breastfeeding among mothers during the. An experimental study in an urban population in india. The current study was designed to determine whether feeding adequacy among 923 months old children is influenced by duration of exclusive breastfeeding. English speaking mothers 18 years of age and older were asked to participate if they had. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding has varied from 65% at birth to antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration breastfeeding is well recognised as the best food for infants and the world health organization recommends that all infants should have exclusive breastfeeding for at least six months after birth. Factors affecting exclusive breastfeeding, using adaptive. To report the duration of and factors associated with exclusive and any breastfeeding among the frenchspeaking community of belgium wallonia. We aimed to determine the factors affecting ebf duration in a sample of iranian infants. Breastfeeding support programme bsp, promotes prolonged duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding among its participants. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and infant infection nature. Impact of a feeding log on breastfeeding duration and exclusivity deborah l.
We examined exclusive breastfeeding duration to both 3 months and 6. A minority of pregnant women strongly value exclusive breastfeeding and are. Previous research has suggested that exclusive breastfeeding is likely to be predicted by socialcognitive variables and fear. The best physiological window of opportunity to stimulate lactation begins immediately after delivery, in the inpatient setting. The feedback and advice of the expert advisory panel on exclusive. Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding exclusive breastfeeding for six months versus three to four months, with continued mixed breastfeeding thereafter reduces gastrointestinal infection and helps the mother lose weight and prevent pregnancy but has no longterm impact on allergic disease, growth, obesity, cognitive ability, or behaviour. Since 2001, the world health organization has recommended exclusive breastfeeding for six months. Pdf factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life has been recommended by numerous health and professional medical organizations, 1, 4 including the american academy of pediatrics aap section on breastfeeding, for all infants in whom breastfeeding is not specifically contraindicated. The aap recommends exclusive breastfeeding for about 6 months, with continuation of breastfeeding for 1 year or longer as mutually desired by mother and infant, a recommendation concurred to by. The discussion of each strategy follows the outline defined here. Factors that positively influence breastfeeding duration.
Tool kit for monitoring and evaluating breastfeeding practices and programs 3 this activity was supported by the united states agency for international d evelopment usaid under cooperative agreement no. Duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding in oklahoma breastfeeding, specifically exclusive breastfeeding, is known to provide immediate benefits to infants and mothers and longterm protection from chronic health problems that lead to morbidity and mortality. This, to a large extent, has been inspired by mounting scientific evidence on the importance of exclusive breastfeeding in reducing infant morbidity and mortality. Antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration.
Although the health benefits of breastfeeding are widely acknowledged, opinions and recommendations are strongly divided on the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. There are several sources of data on breastfeeding in michigan that provide valuable information about initiation and duration, barriers to breastfeeding, and maternity care practices. Exclusive breastfeeding is when a baby receives only breast milk, without any additional food or drinks, including water, until 6 months of age. In resource limited settings where poor and sub optimal breastfeeding practices frequently result to child. National prevalence of breastfeeding initiation, exclusive breastfeeding through age 6 months, and duration of breastfeeding at age 12 months among children aged 1935 months, by selected demographic characteristics national immunization survey, united states, 20112015. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the. These results support current guidelines of ebf for either 46 or 6 months, with continued breastfeeding thereafter. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and infant infection article pdf available in european journal of clinical nutrition 7012 july 2016 with 102 reads how we measure reads. How multiple episodes of exclusive breastfeeding impact. First, we used kaplanmeier plots to compare the survival curves in the bsp and the control group for duration of any breastfeeding and duration of exclusive breastfeeding, without controlling for differences between the two groups figs. The cdc guide to strategies to support breastfeeding mothers and babies. The trend of exclusive breastfeeding among infants less than 6 months in developing countries has taken over a decade to increase from 33% in 1995 to 39% in 2010.
Skilled counseling in enhancing early and exclusive. Arun gupta 1, jp dadhich 1, s manazir ali 2 and neelima thakur 1. In 1994 and 1996, the world health assembly wha and unicef recommended introduction of complementary. The evidence from one trial in honduras demonstrates poorer iron status in infants exclusively breastfed for 6 months, versus 4 months followed.
Indeed, there is evidence from epidemiological investigation that exclusive breastfeeding for. Breastfeeding is well recognised as the best food for infants and the world health organization recommends that all infants should have exclusive breastfeeding for at least six months after birth. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and determinants among brazilian. Breastfeeding at different ages was categorized as exclusive or partial based on whether the infant received any formula or food in addition.
During the same period, the 12month breastfeeding duration rates difference gap increased from 9. Trends and factors associated to early initiation of. A longitudinal study of the effect of psychosocial factors. Breastfeeding has many health benefits for both the mother and infant.1094 1381 596 1080 1647 808 32 716 900 1305 461 1492 1534 1641 1466 125 797 1220 357 271 558 1118 197 1199 1577 111 1279 1274 1250 1641 452 1186 1341 1268 902 1350 1248 1292 1106